An Inclusive Litany
University of Wisconsin English professor Standish Henning used the same word while teaching Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, which led junior English major Amelia Rideau to question him about it after class. He defined the word and thanked her for coming to him. The next time the class met, Henning defined the word again for the entire class, noted that a student had been upset and confused about it, and asked if anyone else had thoughts on the matter. Rideau, the only black person in the class, burst into tears and fled the room, distraught that her professor had repeated the word when she had asked him not to.
Rideau later argued to the faculty senate that the incident underscored the need to revise the university's faculty speech code to punish perpetrators regardless of their intent. Wisconsin had previously adopted a strict student speech code in 1989, which promptly led to complaints about use of the words "redneck" and "primitive dinosaurs," and one student who stole his roommate's ATM card was even said to have been motivated by ethnic tension. The code was struck down as unconstitutional in 1991, revised in 1992, then finally abandoned as unworkable in 1993.
The article, by Dr. Eugene Foster and others, was based on analysis of a distinctive genetic characteristic that is passed along only to male descendants. Since Jefferson had no legitimate sons of his own who survived to adulthood, the study focused on the male descendants of Jefferson's uncle, finding the family's genetic signature in descendants of Hemings's son, Eston. The article considered that another Jefferson may have been the father, but the authors concluded, "In the absence of historical evidence to support such possibilities, we consider them to be unlikely." Though the study fell back on speculative historical accounts, subsequent news accounts labeled Jefferson's paternity a scientific certainty, with many parallels inevitably drawn to President Clinton's present difficulties.
But Herbert Barger, an authority on Jefferson family history who provided assistance for the article's genealogical research, had sent Dr. Foster information on eight other Jefferson men who could just as easily have been the father, and Foster failed to share that information with the article's editors. In Barger's estimation, the most probable candidate was Jefferson's younger brother, Randolph, who after being widowed in 1793, was a frequent visitor to Monticello and was known to spend time playing the fiddle and dancing with Jefferson's slaves. The study did rule out Jefferson's paternity of Hemings's first son, Thomas Woodson, a claim alleged in 1802 by a Richmond newspaper and believed to be true by his descendants. But the question of whether Thomas Jefferson fathered Eston is not likely to be definitively settled any time soon.
[Ed.: Some blamed racism for the conclusion that Jefferson was not Mr. Woodson's father. Robert Golden, one of Woodson's descendents, said that whites "are not interested in proving Jefferson fathered black children." He could not be more wrong.]
I was in Africa, I go to Africa. I mean, ladies and gentlemen, I am in Africa. For three months I am in the bush and I come back. I come back here, and I come back to what? I mean, what is happening right now as we speak? Right now the Judiciary Committee... the president has an approval rating of 68 percent. The president is very popular and things are going pretty good and they are voting to impeach the president. They voted on one article of impeachment already. And I come back from Africa to stained dresses and cigars and this and impeachment. I am thinking to myself, in other countries they are laughing at us 24 hours a day and I'm thinking to myself, if we were in other countries, we would all, right now all of us together, all of us together would go down to Washington and we should stone Henry Hyde to death! [Cheers break out in the audience, interrupted by Baldwin's shouts.] Wait! Shut up! Shut up! No, shut up! I'm not finished. We would stone Henry Hyde to death and would go to their homes and we'd kill their wives and children. We would kill their families! [Shouting] What is happening in this country? What is happening? UGHHH!!!Asked whether it was appropriate to incite mob violence on television, a spokesman for Mr. Baldwin insisted that all who had raised their eyebrows "lighten up." Nevertheless, Baldwin later sent an apology to Hyde "for any comments" that may have offended him or his family, saying the segment was meant to parody "the kind of hate-mongering, crowd-baiting rhetoric that seems to prevail on television these days." NBC, for its part, says it will never air the episode again and refuses to even supply videotapes of the segment.
After residents protested their obscured ocean views, the town decided to place a 20,000-square foot limit on the size of all new houses. The New Yorker notes that the area's standard 10- to 14,000-square foot house already has about six or seven large bedrooms, each with adjoining bathrooms, a great hall, a formal living room, an informal living room, a dining room, a media room, a library, at least a 500-square foot kitchen, maid's quarters, a pantry, and perhaps a three- or four-car garage. "Some houses have a squash court, and I've built a few with bowling alleys," said Kurt Andreassen, a local contractor.
Perhaps inspired by the resulting political fallout, the agency decided that the best way to reintroduce the gray wolf into northern New England was to take it off the endangered species list. Endangered status carries with it severe and politically unpopular restrictions, and requires methodically reintroducing the animal into selected habitats. By downgrading the animal's status to merely "protected," there is still a ban on hunting the animals, but farmers may still shoot them if they threaten livestock. Officials hope a less legalistic approach will allow the animals to migrate down from Canada and thrive. There are currently only about 2,700 gray wolves in the lower 48 states.
Ironically, the chain charges both men and women the same price for dry cleaning services, going against the industry tradition of charging women more.
To liberate the children from the tyranny of "the culture's sex-and-gender system," Bem writes, "we never allowed there to be a time... when they didn't know that some people had partners of their own sex and other people had partners of the other sex." The couple "censored" certain books and television programs that had inappropriate sexual messages, and even used white correcting fluid to change pronouns in books from male to female. Family members would often traipse around in the buff, and Sandra made a point of "putting tampons in and taking them out" in front of the children to demonstrate that women's menstrual blood was not "yucky." Children were encouraged to "experiment sexually" with members of either sex in the privacy of their bedrooms. When Jeremy showed signs of special adeptness at math, Sandra regarded it as a "nightmare. After all, mathematics is a field in which few American women have yet entered the highest levels, and that gender disparity could have easily made Jeremy even more disrespectful of women's intelligence."
The children, now in their twenties, have turned out surprisingly normal. Emily dates boys mostly, wears makeup, maintains a doll collection, and does not shave her body hair. Jeremy still occasionally wears a skirt, just as he wore barrettes to nursery school. He admits that it still bothers him that he is interested in "conventionally gendered" topics like "math and computer programming and physics." Rebuking his mother for her child-rearing practices in a later interview for the book, Jeremy says, "If you were doing it all over again, I would advise you to make it clearer to me that it's okay to have conventional desires as well as unconventional ones." Emily, for her part, complains that her mother made her feel "unnatural to be a girl." Sandra takes this to mean that she and her husband/partner must have been "much more gendered as parents than [we] had intended."
In conclusion, Bem mentions without any elaboration that she and Daryl "did split up about four years ago, and both of use became involved in relationships with people of our own sex." She describes their current relationship as "no longer close-coupled."
So intense is Mr. Clinton's obsession with Mr. Starr that he has gone so far as to tell several members of his administration that the prosecutor was partly to blame for his affair with Lewinsky, according to an official who heard the remarks. Mr. Clinton told these associates that he was so angry about the intrusiveness of Mr. Starr's inquiries that he sought comfort in a relationship with Ms. Lewinsky.
If we could get the hormone-crazed adolescents of America to behave as responsibly as the president and Lewinsky, we could wipe out the scourge of teenage pregnancy.
Yet this report was scientifically well grounded compared to one published by Lundberg in JAMA the previous April. Authored by Devra Lee Davis, an epidemiologist at the World Resources Institute, an environmentalist group, the report compared male-female birth ratios between 1970 and 1990, found male births declining, and suggested that man-made chemicals were to blame. "Proportion of Male Births Down in U.S., Study Says; Pollution Suggested as Possible Cause," echoed the Washington Post. But government statistics on sex ratios of newborns go back much farther to 1940, and the full data set indicates that the ratio swings up and down from one decade to the next. Ms. Davis simply ignored those years she found inconvenient. The data also show the relative number of male births since 1970 has been increasing among blacks, revealing an apparent discriminatory effect on the part of synthetic chemicals against white males.
Tax Status of Salads: Food containing ingredients, whether mixed or not, such as chopped, shredded, diced, sliced, or pureed vegetables, meat, fish, eggs, or other food when supplied with a dressing and/or seasoning(s), whether or not the dressing is mixed with the other ingredients, is considered to be a "salad" for purposes of determining its GST/HST status. A combination of one ingredient and a dressing or seasoning(s), which is sold or represented as a salad, is also considered to be a salad.
All supplies of salads, except those that are canned or vacuum-sealed, are taxable at 7% (15% in the participating provinces). Generally, if there is no dressing of seasoning applied to the ingredients, and no dressing or seasoning is packaged separately with the ingredients, the package is not considered to be a salad and is zero-rated. However, supplies of fruit salads or gelatin salads are taxable at 7% (15% in the participating provinces), even though they generally do not contain a dressing.
Supplies of salads that are sold in cans or containers that are vacuum-sealed are zero-rated. Supplies of mixed, cut vegetables that are packaged and promoted as "stir-fry" or "chop suey mixes" are also zero-rated, since they are not considered to be salads.
Suppose that a newborn baby is diagnosed as a hemophiliac. The parents, daunted by the prospect of bringing up a child in this condition, are not anxious for him to live. Could euthanasia be defended here? Our first reaction may well be a firm No, for the infant can be expected to have a life worth living, even if it is not quite as good as a normal baby. The "prior existence" version of utilitarianism supports this judgment. The infant exists. His life can be expected to contain a positive balance between happiness over misery. To kill him would deprive him of this positive balance. Therefore it would be wrong.
On the "total" version of utilitarianism, however, we cannot reach a decision on the basis of this information alone. The total view makes it necessary to ask whether the death of the hemophiliac infant would lead to the creation of another being who would not otherwise have existed. In other words, if the hemophiliac child is killed, will his parents have another child whom they would not have had if the hemophiliac child lives? If they would, is the second child likely to have a better life than the one killed?
Often it will be possible to answer both these questions affirmatively.
When the death of a disabled infant will lead to the birth of another infant with better prospects of a happy life, the total amount of happiness will be greater if the disabled infant is killed. The loss of happy life for the first infant is outweighed by the gain of a happier life for the second.
Therefore, if killing the hemophiliac infant has no adverse effect on the others, it would, according to the total view, be right to kill him. The main point is clear: killing a disabled infant is not morally equivalent to killing a person. Very often it is not wrong at all.
[Ed.: The New York Times notes that Mr. Singer is a top scholar who, before entering the field of medical ethics, already had considerable influence on the animal rights movement. A proponent of Jeremy Bentham's school of utilitarianism, which judges the morality of an action by its consequences rather than by any intrinsic qualities, Singer is concerned with the overall quality of life rather than its supposed sanctity. Arguing that the total amount of suffering in the world must be decreased (which he backs up by donating 20 percent of his income to famine relief agencies), Singer concludes that killing a disabled infant or terminally ill patient can be justified over killing a healthy animal, or at least one that displays comparable levels of emotion and rational behavior. While he believes it is never justified to kill a disabled person who expresses a wish to live, for infants or others who can't make their wills known the decision falls to parents and doctors on a case-by-case basis.
In a later interview with the Princeton alumni weekly, Singer responded to his critics' challenge that were he to follow his own principles, he would redirect the large amount of money spent caring for his mother, who suffers from Alzheimer's disease, to the poor. "Yes. In a sense, my spending money on my mother's care is in conflict with that principle," Singer said. "But so is the fact that I flew back to Australia to visit my daughters at Christmas. That money could also be better spent elsewhere. I've never claimed that I live my life perfectly in accordance with those principles of sharing my money as much as I should."
Singer has also long complained of his exclusion from German academic conferences, where scholars detected a link between his ideas and their recent unhappy experience under Nazi rule.]
Schools should allow children to be naughty and to break rules to help them become confident adults, a management guru said yesterday.
Charles Handy told the North of England education conference in Sunderland that teachers who connived at rule-breaking might be encouraging the entrepreneurs of the future. He described how a 13-year-old boy who was allowed to sell pirate videos at school became a highly successful businessman.
Mr. Handy, conference president and author of business management books, said: "Schools are protected proving zones and should let pupils get away with a bit of naughtiness. Thinking outside the box in adult life is often the equivalent of a little naughtiness in a child."
Mr. Handy said non-conformity would help people survive in the confusing world of market capitalism, and good grades should be only part of education.
Nigel de Gruchy, general secretary of the National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers, accused Mr. Handy of inciting riots in the classroom. "Heaven protect the education service from nonsense like this," he said.
- To acquire knowledge about the role and contributions of Marion Barry Jr. during the Civil Rights Movement.
- To examine and develop an understanding of the political movement for Home Rule in the District of Columbia and the role of Marion Barry Jr. in this event.
- To acquire knowledge about the significant contributions of Marion Barry Jr. to the District of Columbia during his tenure as school-board member, city-council member, and mayor.
- Develop a time line chronicling important dates in the life of Mayor Marion Barry Jr.
- Develop original posters on the life of Marion Barry Jr.
- Organize a door-decorating project in honor of Mayor Marion Barry Jr.
- Organize a bulletin-board contest highlighting the life of Mayor Marion Barry Jr.
- Design banners to display in your school honoring the legacy of Mayor Marion Barry Jr.
- Form research groups to obtain information on the contributions of Mayor Marion Barry Jr. as a school-board member.
- Write letters to Mayor Barry expressing your thoughts about his tenure as mayor.
- Research and write essays on the contributions of Mayor Marion Barry Jr.
- Write short stories on the contributions of Mayor Marion Barry Jr. to the youth of the District of Columbia.
- Write poems on the contributions of Mayor Marion Barry Jr.